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初中英语知识点归纳:主动语态与被动语态

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初中英语知识点归纳:主动语态与被动语态

   语态表示主语和谓语的关系。语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。如果主语是动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成的,要用主动语态,如:We speak Chinese in China.在中国我们说汉语;如果主语是动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用被动语态,如:Chinese is spoken by us in China.在中国汉语被我们说。杭州少儿英语--首选杭州博尔外语,专业的英语培训学校.
一、主动语态改成被动语态方法  把主动语态改为被动语态非常简单,可以遵循以下几个步骤:
1. 将主动语态的宾语作被动语态的主语;
2. 谓语动词变为“be+及物动词的过去分词”,并通过be的变化来表达出不同的时态;
3主动语态的主语变为介词by的宾语,组成介词短语放在被动结构中的谓语动词之后。(有时by的短语可以省略);
例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.
二、被动语态的用法:
1. 一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词   Our classroom is cleaned everyday.
2. 一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词   A new shop was built last year.
3. 现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词   This book has been translated into many languages.   
4. 一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词     Many more trees will be planted next year.
5. 含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词   Young trees must be watered often.
6. 现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词   Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→   My bike is being repaired by Tom now.
7. 不定式的被动语态:to + be + 及物动词的过去分词   There are two books to be read. →   There are twenty more trees to be planted.
三、使用被动语态应注意的几个问题:
1. 不及物动词无被动语态。  What will happen in 100 years.   The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。This pen writes well.  This new book sells well.
3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to,但变为被动语态时,须加上to。   例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something   see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something   The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。   He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.   He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。   We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.
常见考法
对于语态考查,多以单选、词语运用的形式考查学生在具体语境中灵活运用被动语态的能力。一般情况下,会综合考查时态和语态,这时,要根据语境和动作发生的时间来确定时态,然后再确定语态。
典型例题:–Could you tell me whom the radio__________by? -Sorry, I have no idea.
A invents B invented C is invented D was invented 
解析:题干的意思是“你能告诉我收音机是谁发明的吗?”,发明收音机是过去的事,所以用过去时,排除 A和C;而radio和invent 构成被动关系,应用被动语态,排除B
答案:D
误区提醒
有些动词后跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语,但改为被动结构后要加上“to”,这一点我们必须注意。
典型例题:The young man was often seen _____ by the lake.
A to draw B to drawing C draw D drew
解析:这是2007年济南的中考题。“看到某人做某事”为see sb.do sth.。句中动词原形是省略to的不定式,在被动语态中要还原to。
答案:A
 

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