当前位置: 杭州博尔英语 > 高二英语 > 完形填空解题技巧与指导

完形填空解题技巧与指导

来源:杭州博尔英语作者:博尔英语 吴老师 18705812701免费在线预约课程试听,

完形填空解题技巧与指导

   

一. 阅读技能与试题设计
2003年颁布的《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》明确提出“高中阶段要着重提高学生用英语获取信息和处理信息,分析问题和解决问题的能力”,这就要求学生要不断地提高相应的阅读技能。新课标规定的阅读技能测试要点如下:
1. 理解主旨大意;
2. 寻读具体信息;
3. 理解细节;
4. 根据上下文提供语境推测生词词义,进而加深对文段的理解;
5. 简单的判断和推理;
6. 理解文段的基本逻辑结构;
7. 理解作者的意图和态度;
8. 理解文段的文化信息。
测试方式共有11种,而其中的完形填空也是历届高考必有的题型之一,所占分值比例较大,并且由于在试卷中所处的位置较前,因此如何能在短时间内更好的完成这类试题对考生的影响较大:完形填空做得好,则考生对后面的试题就越有信心。
二. NMET 2008(浙江卷)完形填空
NMET 2008(浙江卷)完形填空所给的短文是以作者的父亲给他童年生活带来的爱与欢乐而展开的回忆与联想。试题原文如下:
In the depths of my memory, many things I did with my father still live. These things come to represent, in fact, what I call __21__and love.
I don’t remember my father ever getting into a swimming tool. But he did __22__the water. Any kind of __23__ride seemed to give him pleasure. __24__he loved to fish; sometimes he took me along.
But I never really liked being on the water, the way my father did. I liked being __25__the water, moving through it, __26__it all around me. I was not a strong __27__, or one who learned to swim early, for I had my __28__. But I loved being in the swimming pool close to my father’s office and __29__those summer days with my father, who __30__ come by on a break. I needed him to see what I could do. My father would stand there in his suit, the __31__person not in swimsuit.
After swimming, I would go __32__ his office and sit on the wooden chair in front of his big desk, where he let me __33__anything I found in his top desk drawer. Sometimes, if I was left alone at his desk __34__ he worked in the lab, an assistant or a student might come in and tell me perhaps I shouldn’t be playing with his _35__. But my father always __36__and said easily, “Oh, no, it’s __37__.” Sometimes he handed me coins and told me to get __38__ an ice cream…
A poet once said, “We look at life once, in childhood,; the rest is __39__.” And I think it is not only what we “look at once, in childhood” that determines our memories, but __40__, in that childhood, look at us.

21.A. desire B. joy C. anger D. worry
22.A. avoid B. refuse C. praise D. love
23.A. boat B. bus C. train D. bike
24.A. But B. Then C. And D. Still
25.A. on B. off C. by D. in
26.A. having B. leaving C. making D. getting
27.A. swimmer B. rider C. walker D. runner
28.A. hopes B. faiths C. rights D. fears
29.A. spending B. saving C. wasting D. ruining
30.A. should B. would C. had to D. ought to
31.A. next B. only C. other D. last
32.A. away from B. out of C. by D. inside
33.A. put up B. break down C. play with D. work out
34.A. the moment B. the first time C. while D. before
35.A. fishing net B. office things C. wooden chair D. lab equipment
36.A. stood up B. set out C. showed up D. turned out
37.A. fine B. strange C. terrible D. funny
38.A. the student B. the assistant C. myself D. himself
39.A. memory B. wealth C. experience D. practice
40.A. which B. who C. what D. whose
相对于科技类文章而言,这篇叙述性的完形填空是比较简单的,但由于考查的内容除对文章主旨的理解外还涉及到细节的判断和推理,这正是这类题型的难度所在之处。
三. 完形填空解题技巧
现以NMET 2008(浙江卷)完形填空为例,笔者愿与大家一起探讨从中发现的一些解题技巧。
(一)前后呼应法
做完形填空时,要始终抓住文章本身,联系“双语境”来判断,既大语境——全文中心和基调,小语境——空格前后句子所构成的语境;再根据前有伏笔后有呼应的思路来做题。如:
第21题 B,根据后面作者所回忆的事情来判断,他的父亲带给他的应是爱与欢乐,所以选B:joy ,而其他选项都没有给出相应的事情来呼应。
第22题 D, 由这一段的最后一句“he loved to fish;”及第三段的第一句“But I never really liked being on the water, the way my father did.”可知父亲喜欢水及一些水上活动。因此第23题也就能很快找到正确答案是A: boat。
第30题 B,由后面两句可得知父亲会在休息时过来看“我”,特别后面提到“My father would stand there in his suit, ” 同样这儿用would更合理。
第32题 D,这一段是讲作者在游泳后到他父亲的办公室里玩耍。与后面的“sit on the wooden chair in front of his big desk”相呼应。
第33题 C,与35题所在的句子“--- perhaps I shouldn’t be playing with his _35__.”相呼应,因此35题的答案也能从33题“--- where he let me __33__anything I found in his top desk drawer.”中推断出是C。
第38题 C,由文章大意可知道父亲应是十分爱“我”的,所以有时还会给“我”钱买冰淇淋吃。这是与文章的大语境相呼应的。
第39题 A,作者认为不仅是我们童年所看到的事物决定了我们的记忆,而且还包括那时关爱我们的人。所以诗人所说的“the rest”就应该是memory与下一句的“determines our memories”相呼应。
(二)But 转折法
在完形填空题中,but 一词前后通常会设题。文中一出现but,应该马上想到前后语意有转折,只要知道其中一方的语意,就可以推出另一方的意思,所以在做题时,遇到类似but的词,如:however, nevertheless, whereas, yet等,也可以同样处理,以便于从文中找到解题的依据。仍旧以NMET 2008(浙江卷)完形填空为例:
第25题 D,由这一段的第一句“But I never really liked being on the water, he way my father did”.及后面的“moving through it,”可知“I liked being in the water.”
第37题 A, 当父亲的学生或助手认为“我”不应该玩他办公室里的东西时,父亲却总是轻松地表示没有关系。所以第37题答案很明显是A : fine。
以下就笔者在2008年第一学期从事高一英语教学实践过程中遇到的完形填空为例,发现的其他一些解题技巧。
(三)绝对矛盾法
绝对矛盾法是从选项着手分析,若四个选项中有两个选项是绝对矛盾和对立,那么正确选项大多在这两个对立项之间产生。二者必居其一.至于究竟是两者中的哪一个,则需要进一步根据上下文的语境来判断。例如在《浙江省湖州中学教学讲义高一英语模块一、二》(2008,9)第120页,完形填空第二段:
Most computers have a memory(存储器). They can work millions of times ___3____ than man. That means information can be put in ___4____ and be taken out any time when needed.
第3题的选项分别是A.slow B. slower C. fast D. faster
据观察应选用比较级,所以先排除A和C,在根据后面的一句及我们的常识可知,电脑的工作效率要比人快,所以在B,D这两个对立项中,自然就可以很轻松地把正确答案D选出来了。
又如第90页的完形填空:
The Great Wall, one of the greatest wonders of the world, was enlisted in the World Heritage in 1987. Just ___1__ a dragon, it winds its way from east to west of China. With a history of more than 2000 years. Some sections are now in ruins or even entirely___2___ .
第2题的选项分别是A.appeared B. missed C. went D. disappeared
显然A和D 是对立项,根据题意可知长城的一些部分已经破败不堪,甚至完全消失,故答案就是D. disappeared 。
《高中学习丛书英语高一(Book1,2)》第101页的完形填空中有一部分是这样的:
Jazz is America’s contribution to ___5___ music. Compared to classical music, which __6__ formal European traditions, jazz is a free form.
第5题的选项分别是A.classical B. scared C. popular D. light
其中A与C相对立,通过后一句“Compared to classical music,”可知正确选项为C。
(四)同义复现法
同义复现是英语中常见的一种现象。为强调某一意思,但又不想重复使用某个词或短语。在完形填空题中,同义词或同义短语的位置多半比较靠近,很容易找到,所以同义复现法是很好的解题技巧。无须过多的推理,只需确定是哪里使用了同义复现,然后从选项中找出与之相符合的一项即可。
如2007学年第一学期期末考试样卷(湖州市)高一英语完形填空的第三段:
That night he wrote a seven-page paper describing his ___45___ of someday owning a horse ranch. He wrote his dream in great detail and __46__ drew a diagram of a 200-acre ranch __47__ the locaion of everthing important there.
第45题的选项分别是A. mind B. chance C. goal D. design
正确答案C:goal与下一句中的dream同义,并且结合上下文得出他写了37页纸来描述他自己的目标,也就是他的梦想。
《高中学习丛书英语高一(Book1,2)》第82页的完形填空最后一段:
I was worried and I sank in my thoughts. I didn’t even ___19__ that the coffee was bad, __20__ Steven didn’t notice there was a person next to him.
第19题的选项分别为A. pretend B. understand C. insist D. realize
第20题的选项分别为A. as if B. just as C. just after D. even though
第20题的正确选项为B. just as。由此可知第19题的正确选项应与由“just as”引导的从句中的谓语动词“notice”同义,故选D. realize。
四. 解题指导
无论是哪种形式的阅读技能检测,只有在平时的课堂教学中扎实学生的语言基础,才使学生稳步提高用英语获取信息,处理信息,发现问题和解决问题的能力。无法想象一位词汇贫乏,语法不通,句子结构不清的学生能在完形填空题中得高分。所以作为教师的我们有义务从小处着手,从细节做起,逐渐地培养学生的解题能力。具体可以从以下几点做起:
(一) 词汇分类
可以单元或模块为单位,把其中的近义词,反义词等归类,这样就能使学生在遇到有同义反复或绝对矛盾题型时,更快地找到正确的答案。 如在Book 1里就有这样一些近义词或词组:opinion, view; destroy, damage; as if, as though; be concerned about, care about; right away, at once 等。反义词或词组有:generous, mean; selfish, selfless; equal, unfair; be fond of, be tired of; think highly of, think little of等。
(二) 句子衔接
注意句子和句子之间的衔接,可应用不同的连接词连接相同的两个句子,观察其产生的意义有何不同。在平时的阅读中也可以指导学生善于发现句子和句子或段落和段落之间的连接词,并适时对连接词进行总结和归类。例如:
表示并列的有:and, too, what’s more, in addition, as well as等;
表示因果的有:beacause, since, so that, therefore, as a result等;
表示转折或对比的有:while, however, on one hand…on the other hand等;
表示总结的有: all in all, in a word, in conclusion等。
明白了句子与句子之间的关系,学生就能更快地理解文章的主旨,也能从细节中更有把握地推断出一些有用的信息。
(三) 讲究策略
做完形填空的速度不能太慢,一般要在8分钟内完成,否则有可能会造成后面的试题来不及做。那些平时习惯于逐个单词阅读的学生,容易造成思维中断,不能快速把握文章的主旨,因此教师要帮助其纠正这种不良的阅读方法和习惯。良好的阅读习惯不仅要求学生快速把握文章大意,也要求其在阅读过程中注重细节,特别要正确把握反映作者观点和态度的细节。教师可以通过引导学生对反映细节的文字加以理解与概括,培养学生分析、概括、演绎和归纳的能力,从而达到既不忽视文章细节,又能正确把握文章中心思想的能力。有了良好的阅读技能,学生不仅能在做完形填空时游刃有余,而且还能从整体上提高英语考试的成绩。
英语完形填空解题技巧
沈 永 铭
完形填空是一种既要求有正确的阅读理解能力,有要求有扎实的语法、词汇和文化知识积累,是一种全面考查考生全面语言运用能力的题型。做完形填空应该从哪几个方面入手呢?
  1.首先,大家要以很快的速度浏览全文,掌握文章的主旨,抓住篇章的主要线索,为其后的解题创造良好的条件,建立篇章的整体概念。因此,第一遍浏览时,大家不要急于看选项。浏览全文时要重点了解文中所叙述的人物、时间、地点、事件,即who,when,where,what。完形填空命题的原则一般是第一句话不挖空,目的是使读者进入语境,因此一定要认真阅读这句话,大家可以透过首句的“窗口”看篇章的整个“世界”。例如:Why is a space left between the rails of a railway line where one piece joins the next﹖这句话从铁轨之间的缝隙引出了问题。根据常识,文中内容应与热涨冷缩的物理现象有关。
  2.根据故事情节的发展选词,确定所填的词与文中哪个词有关系以及动作是在什么场合发生的。切记要从整体来看问题,要“瞻前顾后”。
  3.试填之后将所选定的词放到文章中复读检查。(“字面译、通逻辑、搞代入、全文译”)
  具体操作中应注意以下几个的问题
一、从单句中选择答案。
这是完形填空考查项目设计最简单的一种。它相当于一道单项选择题,它不需要通过上下文,而是读它本句即能判断出正确答案。例如:MET90完形填空中的第一句
While my father was an officer of the British army in South Africa, we lived in a41 house.四个选项分别为:A. two-storeyed B.two storeyed C.two-storeys D.two storeys 只要学过构词法,考生很容易就能选出正确答案是A。不过该考查项在完形填空的设计中所占的比例很小。
二、寻找信息词或信息选择答案。
在一篇完形填空文章中,就一句所言,很难确定正确的答案。若继续读下去,就能发现与问题有关的信息词或信息句子出现,这些词或句往往是直接或间接地提示出正确的答案。如NMET95完形填空开头的一段。
Washoe is a young chimpanzee(黑猩猩).She is no41 chimpanzee, though. Scientists are doing a research 42 her. They want to see how civilized(驯化)she can 43 .Already she does many things a human being can do.
41.A.foolish B. ordinary C. special D. simple
42.A.for B. by C. to D. on
43.A.experience B. change C. develop D. become
这篇文章的第一个空格,若按照“单句理解”的方法去解答,显然不行。此段中的最后一句“Already she does many things a human being can do”是信息句,它暗示我们这是一只非同寻常的大猩猩,正确答案显然是B。
空42的答案,可以按照上下文,特别是空41的信息词no ordinary,说明科学家们正在这只动物身上做一些研究工作。因此选D.on是最佳答案。
空43的答案,按照上下文,从意义上看,似乎B.change和C.develop D.become都是正确的答案。但本句中civilized是个信息词,它在本句中是过去分词作形容词,作how引导的宾语从句中某个系动词的表语,很显然,答案是D.become。
三、根据词的固定搭配和固定句型来选择答案。
词的固定搭配,特别是动词的搭配和词语类型试题是完形填空测试的重点,多数题目涉及到动词的语法和各种搭配关系,这是由动词在句子中的重要性决定的。动词在搭配关系上与名词、介词、副词紧密相连,测试的范围较广。这就要求考生多读、多记,对所学短语动词能牢固掌握,并能灵活运用。
四、通过上下文来选择答案。
该项目的设计主要是考查考生的综合分析能力。测试内容包括篇章结构和推理判断能力,这些答案的选择,起关键作用的是上下文的关系,也就是说,对短文的理解是非常重要的,这种考查项目的设计所占的比例较大,且难度也大,若从单句或“局部”来分析,所给的四个答案在语法或结构上都是正确的,若放在全局,则不一定正确。考生必须通过部分上下文甚至全文才能选出正确的答案来。
如MET89完形填空中的一句,The dog seemed to47 his mushrooms and the officers then began to eat their meal, saying that the mushrooms had a very strange 48 (but)quite pleasant taste.选择项:
A. refuse B. hate C. want D. enjoy
此句的答案只有看了后文的信息词“began to eat”和“saying...”来判断,enjoy是最恰当的用词,符合当时的情景,而want显然程度不够,逻辑关系也不严密。再如MET92完形填空中的一句,55 the kettle of boiling water, she moved quietly 56 (towards) the door。。。
A: putting down B. laying aside C. picking up D. taking away
若从文章开头读到这里,很难判断老太太发现有情况后,如何处理“the kettle”,只有将这一自然段读完后,才知老太太是“picking up the kettle”,即“提起壶”,不然她怎能将开水倒向小偷的手呢?
五、通过文章深层意义的理解选择答案。
通过文章深层意义来选择答案,是完形填空难度最大的一种形式。它要求考生不仅要有广博的知识、丰富的生活经历,还要求学生们能够驾驭全文,不仅理解文章的表层意义,而且要弄清文章的深层意义。如NMET94完形填空的第一句:
It was an early morning in summer. In the street, sleeply-eyed people were moving quickly, heading towards their 41
A. jobs B. homes C. buses D. offices
从信息词“early morning”和“sleepy-eyed”来判断,B. homes不符合逻辑,按生活经验,他们是去上班。这时有些考生就会认为,既然上班,就要去“挤公交车”或“去办公室”。但上班的人也有步行的、骑车的或坐地铁的,也有自己开车去的。人们上班有去农场、煤矿,露天码头,还有工厂车间,不一定去办公室。因此,C. buses和D. offices不符合现实生活,只有A. jobs最合乎生活实际,人们起床后,各自奔向自己的工作岗位。
要提高学生完形填空的解题水平,除了上面介绍的方法技巧外,在平时的学习实践中,要有计划、有目的地训练学生加强阅读、提高速度,在实践中感悟词的辨析、搭配,学会对文章进行逻辑判断及推理,既要看懂表层意思,更要理解深层次的含义。要有计划、按步骤,由简到难、由短到长地进行有针对性的专项训练,材料要精选,解题要限时,体裁要多样,做后要分析,运用正确的解题方法与技巧,只要学生持之以恒,解答完形填空的水平就能得到提高。
下面请同学们试着按照老师的解题提示去完成下面这篇介绍美国素有nbz篮球“小皇帝”之称詹姆士. 勒布朗。
ebron james isn't the first high school basketball player to go straight into the nba, but he's probably the best. he has the body, skills and the basketball brain of an all-star (全明星球员). this ___1____ was on ___2____ as he scored 41 points to take cleveland cavaliers (克里夫兰骑士队) to a 107-104 win over the new jersey nets (新泽西网队) on march 28. aged of 19 years and 87 days, james became the ___3 ____ player to score 40 or more in the nba. "it was by far james' best ____4___ ," said cleveland coach paul silas.
known to his friends ____5___ "the king", this was the day james earned his crown(王冠). but he was ____6___ from being a king during a childhood spent in the back streets of akron, ohio. ____7___ many other african-american basketball players, james' early years were a ____8 ___ . his mother gloria was just 16 when she gave birth to him; he knows nothing about his father. mother and son battled for everything from food to a place to live. ____9 ___ help from his grandmother and neighbors, james would ___10 ____ have died when he was young. this spirit of survival has served him well on court, forcing him to take any ____11___ he finds. "i ____12___ losing, i don't like losing," said james of his 41-point display. "i ___13____ the opportunity for us to win and i was ____14___ to capture it." at 2.03 meters, he is no yao ming but this didn't ___15____ him being first choice in 2003 nba draft. this was ____16 ___ to his strength and skill, much of which he learned from high school american football.
although he has a ___ 17____ brain, james has never had to concentrate on ___18____ . some people think this is a mistake and say he should have gone to college to ____19___ his mind. but james is one of the lucky few who has found fame and fortune ___20____ a diploma (文凭). on the court, he is king.


1. a. performance b. activity c. action d. talent
2. a. sale b. exhibition c. show d. duty
3. a. oldest b. strongest c. tallest d. youngest
4. a. performance b. lesson
c. action d. appearance
5. a. for b. as c. by d. with
6. a. well b. far c. deep d. late
7. a. as b. like c. likely d. alike
8. a. fight b. struggle c. battle d. war
9. a. except for b. except c. besides d. without
10. a. certainly b. impossible c. hardly d. probably
11. a. goal b. game c. match d. chance
12. a. hate b. refuse c. object d. reject
13. a. grasped b. seized c. caught d. held
14. a. afraid b. unlucky c. able d. certain
15. a. keep b. forbid c. protect d. stop
16. a. according b. referring c. thanks d. sticking
17. a. fast b. quick c. high d. top
18. a. studying b. resting c. sleeping d. eating
19. a. advance b. march c. increase d. develop
20. a. apart from b. but c. except d. without


答案与解析:
这是一篇介绍美国素有nbz篮球“小皇帝”之称詹姆士. 勒布朗成长历程的短文。詹姆士. 勒布朗,新一代的nba篮球王。他,取胜欲望强,得分能力高,把握机会好,简直是一个全才. 获得2006年全明星赛mvp(最有价值球员)。然而这位年轻的篮球天才的成长过程也充满了艰辛,可谓一路"挣扎"。
1. d 。talent是“天才”或“天赋”的意思.
2. c 。 3月28日当他带领克里夫兰骑士队以107:104击败新泽西网队时这种能力显示了出来,在这场比赛中他一人独得41分。这种能力指上文所提的全明星球员在身体、技术和智力方面的综合素质。
3. d 。 由上文提到的19岁87天反推该空强调james 年纪轻。
4. a 。 一场比赛个人得分过40分或更多是一种好的表现。
5. b 。 known as,"作为......是有名的",符合题意。
6. b 。 由下文介绍的童年时期不幸生活反推,那时他还远不是一个球王。
7. b 。 分析语境可知,该空表"像......一样",应填like。
8. b 。 由下文所介绍的童年不幸生活反推,james的童年生活是一种挣扎。
9. d 。without是介词在这里表示“如果没有”的意思,充当条件状语。
10. d。 没有祖母和邻居的帮助,james也许很小的时候就死了。
11. d 。take any chance,"利用机会",符合题意。
12. a 。下文的don't like暗示该空应填hate。
13. b 。seize the opportunity,"抓住机会",与语境逻辑相符。
14. c 。分析语境可知,该空表"能够",应填able。
15. d 。stop sb. (from) doing sth.,"阻止某人做某事",符合题意。若将stop 改为keep,from不可省,所以a错误。
16. c 。分析语境可知,该空表"多亏了",应填thanks。
17. b 。强调"聪明的、反应快的",应用quick,而不用fast。
18. a 。下文的college暗示该空应填studying。
19. d 。上大学的目的是开发智力,因此该空应填develop。
20. d 。james成了没有文凭而成名的幸运者。

 

联系我们 / 免费试听热线 
吴老师 18705812701
免费在线预约课程试听,

本文出自高二英语转载请注明出自博尔英语,杭州博尔英语,杭州博尔英语学校
本页关键词:英语口语 完形填空解题技巧与指导,完形填空解题技巧与指导
上一篇:英语作文代沟的成因 下一篇:英语完形填空快速提高技巧

姓名: *
电话: *
个人情况:
验证码: 看不清楚? 换一张!