1. If my lawyer _______ here last Saturday, he _______ me from going.
A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent
C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented
2. If I had worn my overcoat, I _______cold.杭州少儿英语--首选杭州博尔外语,专业的英语培训学校.
A. won’t have caught B .couldn’t have caught
C. won’t catch D. wouldn’t catch
3.—If he ______ , he ______ that food.
—Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.
A. was warned; would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken
C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken
4. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she _______, she would have met my brother.
A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come
1．A．本题考查虚拟语气。因为从句表示与过去事实相反的假设，故从句谓语动词用过去完成时，而主句谓语动词用would have +过去分词形式。
2．B．本题考查虚拟条件句中主句谓语动词的使用。因为从句用了过去完成时，可知主句谓语动词用would / could have +过去分词形式。根据句意，可知选B。
3．B. 根据答语，可知本题考查与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。故从句谓语动词用过去完成时，而主句谓语动词用would have +过去分词形式。
4．D． 根据句意“在会上我没有看到你的姐姐。如果她来的话，她就见到我哥哥了”可知，这是考查对过去事实的虚拟。主句用could have done，故从句谓语动词应该用过去完成时。
条件从句用过去时（be动词的过去式一律用were），主句用would （should/ might / could）+动词原形”。如：
If I were you, I would accept the invitation to the party.
If I knew her well, I would tell you about her.
条件从句用过去完成时，主句用“would /should/ might / could + have +过去分词”, 如：
If you had been there last night, nothing would have happened.
If I had got up earlier, I would have caught the first bus.
条件从句用过去时或者“were to + 动词原形”或者“should+ 动词原形”，主句用“would （should/ might / could）+动词原形”, 如：
If it were Saturday tomorrow, we wouldn’t have an exam.
If you were to visit the school tomorrow, you would see Professor Smith.
If it should rain tomorrow, the sports meet would be put off until next Friday.
如果if虚拟条件句中有were, had, 或者should等词时，可以省略if，把这些词放在主语前，形成倒装句。如：
If I should meet her (Should I meet her), I would tell her.
If I were in your position (Were I in your position), I would do it better.
If they had made preparations (Had they made preparations), they would have succeeded.
1. —¬ If the factory ___________ (belong) to me, I ___________ (not sell) it.
— But it isn’t yours.
2. — If you ___________ (keep) the secret, nobody ___________ (know) it.
— I’m sorry for making such a mistake.
3. If the weather were to be (be) fine tomorrow, I ______ (go) for an outing with my parents.
4. ___________ (be) I you, I would think about this problem once again.
5. ___________ (have) I had time last night, I ___________ (go) to see this wonderful film.
What ___________ you ___________, if you ___________ five years younger?
If you ______________________ your car more carefully, such a traffic accident _________________________________.
If it ___________ foggy tomorrow, I ______________________ my car to go shopping.
If it ______________________ clear up tomorrow, we ______________________ for a picnic.
If I ___________ a boy, I ___________ certainly join the army.
If you ___________ my brother, you ___________ treat me in the same way.
I ___________ ___________ very happy, if I ___________ an elder sister like you.
If I ______________________ up the wallet, I _________________________________ it to its owner.
If it ___________ snow heavily tomorrow, everything ___________ be changed.
If you ______________________ that day, the fire _________________________________ out.
1. He ______ you more help, even though he was very busy.
A. might have given B. might give C. should give D. may give
2. What would have happened ________ as far as the river bank?
A. Bob had walked B. if Bob should walk
C. had Bob walked D. if Bob walked
3. ________ I in your position, I would not accept the invitation.
A. Was B. Were C. Be D. Am
4. If my father ________ here the day after tomorrow, he ________ me at all.
A. came, can’t see B comes, couldn’t see
C. comes, couldn’t have seen D. came, couldn’t see
5. If it ________ to snow next week, I would not go to visit that mountain village.
A. is B. be C. were D. are
6. If it ________ rain this evening, I would not go to see this American film.
A. would B. should C. could D. might
7. __________ asked to do this, I would certainly do it in a different way.
A. Were I B. Am I C. If I am D. Was I
8. If he could help us, I am sure he ________. He’s always ready to help others.
A. should B. had C. would have D. did
9.________ her in time, she would have jumped into the river.
A. If I stopped B. Did I stop
C. If I didn’t stop D. If I hadn’t stopped
10. If I _________ ten years younger, I _________ out to try my luck.
A. am, would go B. was, will go C. were, would go D. were, would have gone
11. If you __________ my advice, you _________ such a serious mistake.
A. followed, can’t make B. followed, couldn’t have made
C. had followed, couldn’t make D. had followed, couldn’t have made
12. If I _________ that crowded bus yesterday morning, I _________ my purse with a lot of money in it.
A. didn’t take, couldn’t lose B. hadn’t taken, wouldn’t have lost
C. hadn’t taken, couldn’t lose D. didn’t take, can’t have lost
语法专练 (One possible version)
1. belonged; wouldn’t sell 2. had kept; would have known 3. would go 4. Were 5. Had; would have gone
1. would; do; were 2. had driven; couldn’t have happened 3. were; couldn’t drive 4. were to; would go 5. were; would 6. were; would 7. would be; had 8. had picked; would have returned 9. should; would 10. hadn’t smoked; wouldn’t have broken
测一测 1-5 ACBDC 6-10 BACDC 11-12 DB
1. —My cat’s really fat. （2007浙江）
—You ______ have given her so much food.
A. wouldn’t B .couldn’t C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t
2．—How’s your tour around the North Lake? Is it beautiful? （2007全国卷I）
—It _____ be, but it is now heavily polluted.
A. will B. would C. should D. must
3. I told your friend how to get to the hotel, but perhaps I _____ have driven her there. （2007陕西）
A. could B. must C. might D. should
1．C。shouldn’t have done表示“本来不应该做某事而实际做了”。
3．D。should have done表示“本应该做某事而实际上未做”，本句意为：“我告诉你朋友该怎么到达旅馆了，但是也许我应该开车把她送到那儿去”。
Had I taken my umbrella with me when I came out this morning, I should not be wet now.
If you had followed the doctor’s advice, you would be all right now.
If I hadn’t finished my composition by now, I would be working on it tomorrow.
1) 用with, without，but for等介词短语来替代条件从句, 它们都可以转换成由if引导的虚拟条件句。如：
We might have died without your help. =We might have died if you hadn’t helped us.
Without the sun, nothing would grow. = If there was no the sun, nothing would grow.
2) 用or, otherwise, but that, suppose/ supposing (that), provided / providing (that) 等引导的虚拟语气。如：
You didn’t come yesterday, or you would have seen him.
I was very busy last week, otherwise I would have come to see you.
Supposing I was still a little child, I would study hard from now on.
I would have given you more money, but I was so poor then.
I would have called you, but I forgot your telephone number.
Having known the fact in time, we couldn’t have said that. = If we had known the fact in time, we couldn’t have said that.
Any man in his position would have done that.
4）由should +动词原形或者should/could/might have +过去分词构成的虚拟语气。
I should have told you that, but I was afraid that you couldn’t accept the fact.
Tom, you are so lazy! This work should have been finished hours ago.
3. 在if it were/had been not for …句型中的虚拟语气
If it were not for…,表示对现在事实的假设；If it had not been for…,表示对过去事实的假设。
If it were not for the Internet, everything would be very difficult.
Had it not been for your overcoat, I would have died.
1. _________ the thick forest, we would often have to suffer from a sandstorm.
A. If it is not for B. If it were not for C Is it not for D. Was it not for
2. _________ your offer of rice and vegetables, we would have gone hungry.
A. If it hasn’t been for B. With
C. Has it not been for D. Had it not been for
3. __________ your timely and correct guidance, I couldn’t have solved the problem so smoothly.
A. Had it not been for B. Were it not for
C. If it has not been for D. If it is not for
4. Jane would have gone to Washington ________ to get a plane ticket.
A. was she able B. if she had been able C. would she be able D. if she is able
5. ________ for her encouragement, I would not have paid for that good-for-nothing huge vase.
A. Were it not B. If it is not C. Had it not been D. If they were not
6. If I ________ a lot of money like you, I ________ buy that large company.
A. had, would buy B. have, would
C. had, would have bought D. have had, would have bought
7．If she ________ my English teacher, I ________ much from her.
A. was, can learn B .is, could learn C. were, could learn D. had been, could learn
8. If I ________ out to work last year, I ________ much more money.
A. had gone, would make B. had gone, would have made
C. went, would make D. went, would have made
9．I supported him in time, otherwise he ______off the bike.
A. might fall B. would fall C. should have fallen D. would have fallen
10. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I _____ in love with Mary in my hometown.
A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall
11. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night ______.
A. would be freezing cold B. will be freezing coldly
C. would be frozen cold D. can freeze coldly
12.— Why don’t you buy the necklace since you like it so much?
— I ______, but I don’t have the money.
A. would B. will C. should D. may
13. — Finally I got to my grandmother’s home on foot.
— Really? You ______ a ride there.
A. must have taken B. could have taken
C. shouldn’t have taken D. couldn’t have taken
14. If I had worked harder at school, I ______ in a comfortable office now.
A. would sit B. would have sat C. would be sitting D. were sitting
15. My father told me how to get here but perhaps he _____ me a map.
A. had to give B. ought to give C. must have given D. should have given
1. If it ______（要不是）your mobile phone, I couldn’t have got in touch with her.
2. I was really very busy that day, otherwise, I _______(就去参加舞会了)．
3. _________( 要不是天气好的话), I couldn’t go climbing that day.
4. Providing that I had finished the report two days before, I ________( 就不会被开除了) now.
1-5 BDABC 6-10 ACBDB 11-15 AABCD
I. (One possible version)
1. But for your help, I would have failed.
2. Not having failed in the college entrance examination twice, he wouldn’t have left home without saying a word.
3. If it had not been for your timely support, I would have failed in the election.
4. Were it not for this magazine, it would be difficult for us to kill the time.
II. (One possible version)
1. hadn’t been for 2. would have gone to the party 3. But for the fine weather 4. wouldn’t be fired