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高考英语语法复习精讲与练习(七)虚拟语气

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高考英语语法复习精讲与练习(七)虚拟语气

   

虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的应用

【经典例题】
1. If my lawyer _______ here last Saturday, he _______ me from going.
A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent
C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented
2. If I had worn my overcoat, I _______cold.杭州少儿英语--首选杭州博尔外语,专业的英语培训学校.
A. won’t have caught B .couldn’t have caught
C. won’t catch D. wouldn’t catch
3.—If he ______ , he ______ that food.
—Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.
A. was warned; would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken
C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken
4. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she _______, she would have met my brother.
A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come

【答案与解析】
1.A.本题考查虚拟语气。因为从句表示与过去事实相反的假设,故从句谓语动词用过去完成时,而主句谓语动词用would have +过去分词形式。
2.B.本题考查虚拟条件句中主句谓语动词的使用。因为从句用了过去完成时,可知主句谓语动词用would / could have +过去分词形式。根据句意,可知选B。
3.B. 根据答语,可知本题考查与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。故从句谓语动词用过去完成时,而主句谓语动词用would have +过去分词形式。
4.D. 根据句意“在会上我没有看到你的姐姐。如果她来的话,她就见到我哥哥了”可知,这是考查对过去事实的虚拟。主句用could have done,故从句谓语动词应该用过去完成时。

【重点归纳】
一、虚拟条件句的类别
虚拟条件句可分为三类:一类是叙述与现在事实相反的情况;一类是叙述与过去事实相反的情况;另一类是叙述与将来事实相反的情况。其主句和从句的谓语动词构成如下:
1. 与现在事实相反
条件从句用过去时(be动词的过去式一律用were),主句用would (should/ might / could)+动词原形”。如:
If I were you, I would accept the invitation to the party.
如果我是你的话,我将接受去舞会的邀请。
If I knew her well, I would tell you about her.
如果我很了解她的话,我将告诉你关于她的事情。
2. 与过去事实相反
条件从句用过去完成时,主句用“would /should/ might / could + have +过去分词”, 如:
If you had been there last night, nothing would have happened.
如果你昨天晚上在那儿的话,就没有什么事情发生了。
If I had got up earlier, I would have caught the first bus.
如果我起得更早一些的话,就赶上头班车了。
3.与将来事实相反
条件从句用过去时或者“were to + 动词原形”或者“should+ 动词原形”,主句用“would (should/ might / could)+动词原形”, 如:
If it were Saturday tomorrow, we wouldn’t have an exam.
如果明天是周六的话,我们就不考试了。
If you were to visit the school tomorrow, you would see Professor Smith.
如果你明天去参观学校的话,你就会看到史密斯教授。
If it should rain tomorrow, the sports meet would be put off until next Friday.
如果明天下雨的话,运动会将被推迟到下周五举行。

【特别提示】
在虚拟条件句中,谓语动词按照“后退一步法”使用,即:与现在事实相反,从句中用一般过去时;与过去事实相反,从句中用过去完成时;与将来事实相反,从句中用过去将来时。
二、虚拟条件句中的省略与倒装
如果if虚拟条件句中有were, had, 或者should等词时,可以省略if,把这些词放在主语前,形成倒装句。如:
If I should meet her (Should I meet her), I would tell her.
如果我遇见她的话,我就告诉她。
If I were in your position (Were I in your position), I would do it better.
如果我在你的位置上,我会做得更好。
If they had made preparations (Had they made preparations), they would have succeeded.
如果他们做了准备的话,他们就已经成功了。
Grammar work语法专练
动词变形
用所给动词的适当形式填空。
1. —¬ If the factory ___________ (belong) to me, I ___________ (not sell) it.
— But it isn’t yours.
2. — If you ___________ (keep) the secret, nobody ___________ (know) it.
— I’m sorry for making such a mistake.
3. If the weather were to be (be) fine tomorrow, I ______ (go) for an outing with my parents.
4. ___________ (be) I you, I would think about this problem once again.
5. ___________ (have) I had time last night, I ___________ (go) to see this wonderful film.

完成句子
根据中文提示完成下列各句。
1. 如果你年轻五岁,你该怎么办?
What ___________ you ___________, if you ___________ five years younger?
2. 如果你开车更小心一点,就不会出这样的事故。
If you ______________________ your car more carefully, such a traffic accident _________________________________.
3. 如果明天下雾,我就不能开车去购物。
If it ___________ foggy tomorrow, I ______________________ my car to go shopping.
4. 如果明天天气转晴,我们就去野餐。
If it ______________________ clear up tomorrow, we ______________________ for a picnic.
5. 如果我是一个男孩,我当然会去参军。
If I ___________ a boy, I ___________ certainly join the army.
6. 如果你是我兄弟,你也会一样对我。
If you ___________ my brother, you ___________ treat me in the same way.
7. 如果我有你这样的姐姐会非常幸福的。
I ___________ ___________ very happy, if I ___________ an elder sister like you.
8. 如果我捡到了那只钱包,一定交给失主了。
If I ______________________ up the wallet, I _________________________________ it to its owner.
9. 万一明天下大雪,一切都将被改变。
If it ___________ snow heavily tomorrow, everything ___________ be changed.
10. 如果你那天没有抽烟,火灾就不会发生。
If you ______________________ that day, the fire _________________________________ out.

Grammar quiz语法小测
测一测
选择最佳答案。
1. He ______ you more help, even though he was very busy.
A. might have given B. might give C. should give D. may give
2. What would have happened ________ as far as the river bank?
A. Bob had walked B. if Bob should walk
C. had Bob walked D. if Bob walked
3. ________ I in your position, I would not accept the invitation.
A. Was B. Were C. Be D. Am
4. If my father ________ here the day after tomorrow, he ________ me at all.
A. came, can’t see B comes, couldn’t see
C. comes, couldn’t have seen D. came, couldn’t see
5. If it ________ to snow next week, I would not go to visit that mountain village.
A. is B. be C. were D. are
6. If it ________ rain this evening, I would not go to see this American film.
A. would B. should C. could D. might
7. __________ asked to do this, I would certainly do it in a different way.
A. Were I B. Am I C. If I am D. Was I
8. If he could help us, I am sure he ________. He’s always ready to help others.
A. should B. had C. would have D. did
9.________ her in time, she would have jumped into the river.
A. If I stopped B. Did I stop
C. If I didn’t stop D. If I hadn’t stopped
10. If I _________ ten years younger, I _________ out to try my luck.
A. am, would go B. was, will go C. were, would go D. were, would have gone
11. If you __________ my advice, you _________ such a serious mistake.
A. followed, can’t make B. followed, couldn’t have made
C. had followed, couldn’t make D. had followed, couldn’t have made
12. If I _________ that crowded bus yesterday morning, I _________ my purse with a lot of money in it.
A. didn’t take, couldn’t lose B. hadn’t taken, wouldn’t have lost
C. hadn’t taken, couldn’t lose D. didn’t take, can’t have lost


语法专练 (One possible version)
动词变形
1. belonged; wouldn’t sell 2. had kept; would have known 3. would go 4. Were 5. Had; would have gone
完成句子
1. would; do; were 2. had driven; couldn’t have happened 3. were; couldn’t drive 4. were to; would go 5. were; would 6. were; would 7. would be; had 8. had picked; would have returned 9. should; would 10. hadn’t smoked; wouldn’t have broken
语法小测
测一测 1-5 ACBDC 6-10 BACDC 11-12 DB
虚拟语气(二)
——虚拟条件句的一些特殊用法
【考点导航】
1. —My cat’s really fat. (2007浙江)
—You ______ have given her so much food.
A. wouldn’t B .couldn’t C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t
2.—How’s your tour around the North Lake? Is it beautiful? (2007全国卷I)
—It _____ be, but it is now heavily polluted.
A. will B. would C. should D. must
3. I told your friend how to get to the hotel, but perhaps I _____ have driven her there. (2007陕西)
A. could B. must C. might D. should

【答案与解析】
1.C。shouldn’t have done表示“本来不应该做某事而实际做了”。
2.C。根据句意,“本来这个湖应该是很漂亮的,但是现在被严重污染了”可知选C。should 在这里表示“本来应该……,暗含着实际上不……”之意。
3.D。should have done表示“本应该做某事而实际上未做”,本句意为:“我告诉你朋友该怎么到达旅馆了,但是也许我应该开车把她送到那儿去”。
【重点归纳】
1. 错综时间条件句:
有时在非真实条件句中,主句谓语动词所表示的动作和条件从句中谓语动词所表示的动作并不同时发生,这时主句和从句的谓语动词要根据各自所指的不同时间选用适当的虚拟语气形式。如:
Had I taken my umbrella with me when I came out this morning, I should not be wet now.
如果我今天早上出来的时候带着伞的话,现在就不会淋湿了。(从句说的是过去的事情,而主句说的是现在的事情)
If you had followed the doctor’s advice, you would be all right now.
如果你(那时)听从我的建议的话,现在就不会有事了。(从句说的是过去的事情,而主句说的是现在的事情)
If I hadn’t finished my composition by now, I would be working on it tomorrow.
如果到现在为止我还没有完成作文的话,我明天还要接着写。(从句说的是现在的事情,而主句说的是将来的事情)
2.含蓄虚拟条件句:
有时一个假设的情况并不用条件从句表示,而用其它方式来表示,这样的句子叫含蓄条件句。主要有以下几种情况。
1) 用with, without,but for等介词短语来替代条件从句, 它们都可以转换成由if引导的虚拟条件句。如:
We might have died without your help. =We might have died if you hadn’t helped us.
如果(那时)没有你们的帮助,我们可能已经死了。
Without the sun, nothing would grow. = If there was no the sun, nothing would grow.
没有太阳,万物都不能生长。
2) 用or, otherwise, but that, suppose/ supposing (that), provided / providing (that) 等引导的虚拟语气。如:
You didn’t come yesterday, or you would have seen him.
你昨天没有来,否则的话,你就已经看到他了。
I was very busy last week, otherwise I would have come to see you.
我上周很忙,否则的话,我就来看你了。
Supposing I was still a little child, I would study hard from now on.
假如我还是一个小孩子的话,我将从现在开始努力学习。
3) 通过上下文来表示虚拟:这种情况下,需要加以分析。
I would have given you more money, but I was so poor then.
我(那时如果有钱的话)就可以给你更多的钱了,但是我当时太穷了。
I would have called you, but I forgot your telephone number.
我本来可以给你打电话,但是我(那时)忘了你的电话号码。
Having known the fact in time, we couldn’t have said that. = If we had known the fact in time, we couldn’t have said that.
如果我们(那时)及时知道事实的话,就不会说那件事了。
Any man in his position would have done that.
处于他那个位置的任何人都会那样做的。
4)由should +动词原形或者should/could/might have +过去分词构成的虚拟语气。
种情况下,虚拟条件句经常省略,而只剩下主句结构,如:
I should have told you that, but I was afraid that you couldn’t accept the fact.
我本应该告诉你那件事,但我担心你不能接受这个事实。
Tom, you are so lazy! This work should have been finished hours ago.
汤姆,你太懒了!这个工作本应该几个小时之前完成。
3. 在if it were/had been not for …句型中的虚拟语气
If it were not for…,表示对现在事实的假设;If it had not been for…,表示对过去事实的假设。
If it were not for the Internet, everything would be very difficult.
要不是互联网,一切都会变得很难。
Had it not been for your overcoat, I would have died.
要不是你那件大衣,我就被冻死了。
Grammar work语法专练
选择最佳答案。
1. _________ the thick forest, we would often have to suffer from a sandstorm.
A. If it is not for B. If it were not for C Is it not for D. Was it not for
2. _________ your offer of rice and vegetables, we would have gone hungry.
A. If it hasn’t been for B. With
C. Has it not been for D. Had it not been for
3. __________ your timely and correct guidance, I couldn’t have solved the problem so smoothly.
A. Had it not been for B. Were it not for
C. If it has not been for D. If it is not for
4. Jane would have gone to Washington ________ to get a plane ticket.
A. was she able B. if she had been able C. would she be able D. if she is able
5. ________ for her encouragement, I would not have paid for that good-for-nothing huge vase.
A. Were it not B. If it is not C. Had it not been D. If they were not
6. If I ________ a lot of money like you, I ________ buy that large company.
A. had, would buy B. have, would
C. had, would have bought D. have had, would have bought
7.If she ________ my English teacher, I ________ much from her.
A. was, can learn B .is, could learn C. were, could learn D. had been, could learn
8. If I ________ out to work last year, I ________ much more money.
A. had gone, would make B. had gone, would have made
C. went, would make D. went, would have made
9.I supported him in time, otherwise he ______off the bike.
A. might fall B. would fall C. should have fallen D. would have fallen
10. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I _____ in love with Mary in my hometown.
A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall
11. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night ______.
A. would be freezing cold B. will be freezing coldly
C. would be frozen cold D. can freeze coldly
12.— Why don’t you buy the necklace since you like it so much?
— I ______, but I don’t have the money.
A. would B. will C. should D. may
13. — Finally I got to my grandmother’s home on foot.
— Really? You ______ a ride there.
A. must have taken B. could have taken
C. shouldn’t have taken D. couldn’t have taken
14. If I had worked harder at school, I ______ in a comfortable office now.
A. would sit B. would have sat C. would be sitting D. were sitting
15. My father told me how to get here but perhaps he _____ me a map.
A. had to give B. ought to give C. must have given D. should have given
Grammar quiz语法小测
I. 请将下列句子翻译成英语。
1. 要不是你帮忙的话,我会失败的。
.
2. 如果不是两次考大学都失败的话,他也不会一声不吭地离家出走。
.
3. 如果不是你及时的支持,我就会输掉这次大选。
.
4. 没有这本杂志,我们打发时光就很难。
.
II. 根据上下文的意思,完成句子。
1. If it ______(要不是)your mobile phone, I couldn’t have got in touch with her.
2. I was really very busy that day, otherwise, I _______(就去参加舞会了).
3. _________( 要不是天气好的话), I couldn’t go climbing that day.
4. Providing that I had finished the report two days before, I ________( 就不会被开除了) now.

第16期B3版Keys:
语法专练
1-5 BDABC 6-10 ACBDB 11-15 AABCD
语法小测
I. (One possible version)
1. But for your help, I would have failed.
2. Not having failed in the college entrance examination twice, he wouldn’t have left home without saying a word.
3. If it had not been for your timely support, I would have failed in the election.
4. Were it not for this magazine, it would be difficult for us to kill the time.
II. (One possible version)
1. hadn’t been for 2. would have gone to the party 3. But for the fine weather 4. wouldn’t be fired

 

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