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Eight of the world’s most stunning bridges全世界最惊人的桥梁八


On days when clouds form in the steep Tarn Valley in the south of France, the immensely high and remarkably slender concrete pylons – one of the seven is taller than the Eiffel Tower – are all that can be seen of the breathtaking Millau Viaduct from the surrounding hillsides.. The cable-stayed bridge, opened in 2004 to the designs of the French structural engineer Michel Virlogeaux and the British architect Norman Foster has streamlined long summer road journeys between Paris, Montpellier and the Spanish border. Where once traffic snarled to a halt in Millau, it now soars high above the town and river. Although the whole point of le Viaduc de Millau is to speed traffic across the Tarn Valley, it is a good idea to stop at the official viewing point and simply stare at this supremely elegant 21st Century bridge.

Hohenzollern Bridge, Cologne

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The visual marriage the lofty Cologne Cathedral’s stone engineering and the bold steel structure of the Hohenzollern Bridge is testimony to the way in which the great railway buildings of the era before World War I were the ‘cathedrals’ of the industrial age. Completed in 1911, the 409m bridge crosses the Rhine. Blown up by German engineers in March 1945 in an attempt to slow the Allied advance on Berlin, today the rebuilt bridge is the busiest on Germany’s rail network. Touchingly, its monumental steel structure – rather like the hump backs of great whales rising from the river – is adorned, along the fence between the pedestrian sidewalk and the railway tracks, with thousands of ‘love padlocks’ celebrating the relationships of many of the thousands of people who use the bridge to cross the Rhine each day. Scarred by war, the bridge has been transformed into an unexpected symbol of unity and love. Designed originally by the architect Franz Heinrich Schwechten, it was not, however, the pure engineering structure we see today: then, it was adorned with towering castle or cathedral-like gateways. Intriguingly, Schwechten who began his career designing railway stations, and then the Hohenzollern Bridge, went on to produce a number of memorable churches later in his career. Railways and religion were a marriage made in stone, steel and Cologne.

Forth Railway Bridge

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The Forth Bridge is one of the wonders of the industrial age. A symbol of structural engineering at its innovative best, it appears on Scottish £20 notes and steals the scene in Alfred Hitchcock’s The 39 Steps (1935). Work began in 1882 to designs by John Fowler and Benjamin Baker on what was intended to be a highly visible improvement on the earlier Tay Bridge thatcollapsed in 1879 taking an express train and its passengers to a watery grave. The main body of the bridge comprises three gigantic, cage-like cantilevers rising from granite footings set 46m below in the unforgiving Firth of Forth. Completed in 1890, this was Britain’s first major steel bridge and, although it has required a full-time maintenance team to look after it, its value remains undimmed. ‘Like painting the Forth Bridge’ has long been a popular term describing a never-ending task. In 2011, however, work was completed on a £130 million ($223 million) repaint designed to last until 2050, while plans have been drawn up for a visitors’ centre offering a walk up those daunting steel cantilevers.

SiMingYi Viaduct

(John Day/Railpictures.net)

The 945km Jitong Railway through Inner Mongolia opened in 1995 at a time when the Chinese National Railways had a surplus of powerful, mainline steam locomotives built as late as 1988. Given that the Jitong Railway passed through coalfields, the decision was made to go with steam. Adventurous steam enthusiasts from around the world were amazed to find fleets of heavy freight trains working flat out over modern motorway-style concrete bridges. The best place to watch was by the Jingpeng Pass where the line twisted and climbed between desert and mountains over a sequence of bridges. The most dramatic of these was the curving SiMingYi Viaduct. I use the word “was” because although the viaduct is still very much in use, the steam locomotives that gave the Jitong Railway its special appeal went in 2005. For 10 years, though, this was a remarkable place, offering a marriage of new and old structures and technologies. The Jingpeng Pass and the SiMingYi Viaduct were adventures in every way.

Pont du Gard

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In 1738, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the Swiss philosopher, visited the Pont du Gard. “The echo of my footsteps under these immense vaults”, he wrote, “made me imagine that I head the strong voices of those who had built them. I felt myself lost like an insect in that immensity…  and, I said to myself with a sigh, ‘Why was I not born a Roman?’” The sight of this imposing limestone aqueduct, with its three tiers of arches commanding the Gardon River between Uzes and Nimes in the south of France, is as impressive today as it was to Rousseau and has been ever since it was completed very nearly 2,000 years ago. A Unesco World Heritage site since 1985, the aqueduct was originally built to bring fresh spring water to the Roman colony of Nemausus [Nimes]. It stands 49m high and spans 275m, although it was once longer. The aqueduct fell out of use in the 6th Century, yet continued to serve as a bridge for hundreds of years. It was restored under the direction of the architect Charles Laisne between 1855 and 1858 for Napoleon III. Today, the aqueduct is one of France’s leading tourist attractions, although, a little sadly, none comes here either for the waters or to cross this heroic Roman bridge.

Trift Bridge

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One of the most exciting of all rope, or simple suspension, bridges is the Trift Bridge spanning Lake Triftsee in the Bernese Oberland used by thousands of walkers each year in search of the ever-shifting glory of the great Trift Glacier. The bridge spans 170m of nothingness 100m above the lake. For the intrepid, the views of lake, mountains and glacier are their own reward. The first bridge – opened in 2004 – swayed all too much, especially with winds of up to 200km/h sweeping through the valley, and was replaced five years later by the one you step across gingerly today. Designed by the Swiss architects firm Ingenieurbüro Hans Pfaffen, it boasts a tensioned ‘parabolic underspan’ – looking like a mirror of the structure above – that keeps sudden movements in check.

Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge

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The River Tees interrupts the drive along the road from Middlesbrough. Here, you join a queue to make what must surely be one of the world’s most extraordinary river crossings. This is the 259m Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge, carrying a gondola suspended from its high, skeletal structure that ferries up to nine cars and 200 people at a time some fifty metres above the river. It might not be fast, but it is an engineering delight and has been in service, pretty much flawlessly, since the day it opened in 1911. Designed and built by the Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Company, Darlington, the idea had been dictated by the fact that ships needs to pass unheeded along the Tees while the cost and practicality of building a conventional bridge high enough for them to do so was considered out of the question. You can still enjoy this remarkable ride today, in a car. Or, from the banks of the Tees, you can marvel for free at its spidery structure and at the sight of that heavily laden gondola gliding slowly above the great industrial river below.

Golden Gate Bridge

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This serene road bridge is, tragically, as notorious for the number of people who have jumped to their deaths from its high, slender frame as it is for its elegant engineering and its place in the heart of many Americans and fellow admirers from around the world. Like Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge has long helped to shape and even define its host city over several generations. The dark side of the 2.7km bridge’s life is especially sad given the sheer joyous nature of its design. Its famous orange paintwork, the length of its principal span, the way it looks in Californian sunsets, in winter fog or on screen, makes it one of the best loved of all the world’s bridges. Subtly modified in recent years to cope with the impact of future earthquakes, the bridge was opened in 1937, its design led by the engineer and poet Joseph Strauss who had campaigned tirelessly for the project. Strauss was teamed up with the experienced bridge engineer Leon Moisseiff, architect Irving Morrow and project engineer, Charles Alton Ellis. With its elegant suspension structure and graceful Art Deco pylons, the Golden Gate Bridge, hugely popular from the start, is at once an emotional as well as a memorable and beautiful spatial and structural experience.




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第四大桥是工业时代的奇迹。在其创新的最佳象征结构工程,它出现在苏格兰£20个音符,抢镜头的艾尔弗雷德希区柯克的39个步骤(1935)。工作开始于1882设计由约翰福勒和本杰明贝克是为了什么是以前在泰桥thatcollapsed 1879以特快列车和乘客走向坟墓的高度可见的改进。桥的主体包括三个巨大的,像笼子一样的悬臂从花岗岩底座设置在了4600万上升无情湾。在1890完成,这是英国第一大钢铁桥,虽然它需要一个全职的维修团队,照顾它,它的价值仍在。像画第四大桥一直流行术语,描述一个永无止境的任务。2011然而工作是在一个£完成130000000(223000000美元重绘设计持续到2050虽然计划已经游客中心提供一个走上那些令人生畏的钢悬臂梁的制定


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1738,贾可卢梭,瑞士心理学家,访问了杜加桥。“这些巨大的穹顶下我的脚步的回声”,他写道,“我以为我头上的那些谁建造了他们强烈的声音。我觉得自己失去了一样,浩瀚……昆虫我叹了口气,对自己说为什么我没有出世罗马“这壮观的石灰岩渡槽的视线,它的三层拱门指挥在法国南部于泽斯和尼姆之间的花园河,今天它是卢梭一直很近2000年前完成一直给人留下深刻的印象。联合国教科文组织世界遗产1985以来,渡槽的初衷是把新鲜的泉水的nemausus [尼姆]的罗马殖民地。它是高和跨度2.75亿4900万,尽管曾经长。渡槽的使用在第六世纪的下跌,但继续担任了数百年的桥梁。这是恢复建筑师查尔斯laisne方向在1855和1858之间的拿破仑三世。今天渡槽是法国一位主要的旅游景点虽然有点遗憾的是,没有来这里水域或穿过这个英雄的罗马桥


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一个最令人激动的绳子,或简单悬挂,桥是桥跨湖triftsee TRIFT在伯尔尼高原在不断转换的伟大荣耀TRIFT冰川每年数以千计的搜索者使用。桥跨1.7虚无100m以上湖。对于无畏的意见,湖,山和冰川是自己的奖励。第一桥–开2004–动摇的太多了,尤其是以200km/h扫蜿蜒流过山谷,并取代五年后的今天你跨过小心翼翼地。由瑞士建筑师事务所ingenieurbüRO汉斯pfaffen设计它拥有一“抛物线underspan看上去像一个以上使突然的动作检查结构


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这宁静的路桥,不幸的是,对于那些跳楼死亡人数从高高的身材修长,臭名昭著的,因为它是以其优雅的工程和在世界各地的许多美国人和其他人从心脏的地方。悉尼海港大桥,金门大桥一直帮助塑造和定义其主办城市在几代。的2.7km桥的生活黑暗的一面特别伤心了其设计的纯粹的快乐的本质。其著名的橙色油漆,其主跨长度,这样看来,在加利福尼亚的日落,冬天雾或屏幕上,使它成为最好的爱世界上所有的桥梁。巧妙地修改近年来应对未来地震的影响,该桥于1937通车,其设计的LED由工程师和诗人Joseph施特劳斯曾竞选不懈努力,为项目。施特劳斯是联手与经验丰富的列昂moisseiff桥梁工程师,建筑师Irving Morrow和项目工程师,查尔斯奥尔顿埃利斯。以其优雅的悬架结构和优美的装饰艺术风格的金门大桥广受欢迎的从一开始,是一个情感以及令人难忘的美丽的空间和结构的经验


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