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古巴:一个国家的卫生纸是罕见的比鹧鸪

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古巴:一个国家的卫生纸是罕见的比鹧鸪

   


Cuba: A country where toilet paper is rarer than partridge

古巴:一个国家的卫生纸是罕见的比鹧鸪

Years after the collapse of the USSR, Cuba remains a bastion of communism, central planning... and shortages of basic goods. Anyone returning from a trip abroad therefore takes as many of these as they can carry - even if they are flying from Moscow.

苏联解体后数年,古巴仍然是一个共产主义的堡垒,中央计划…和基本商品短缺。有人从国外归来的旅行,因此需要许多这些可以进行-即使他们是从莫斯科飞。

The bright orange bottle of cleaning fluid was probably the oddest item stuffed into my suitcase this time, wedged in beside the tennis shoes for one friend and pile of baby clothes for another. It's a ritual I've grown used to: every time you leave communist-run Cuba with its centrally-planned economy and sparsely-stocked stores, you go shopping.

清洗液明亮的橘瓶可能是最奇怪的物品填充到这个时候我的手提箱,挤在网球鞋一朋友和婴儿的衣服堆一。这是一个仪式,我已经习惯:每次你离开共产主义古巴与中央计划经济和人口稀少的商店,你去购物。

But as I packed my bags last week to head back to Havana, I did a double-take. I was in Moscow, heading home from a work trip, and as usual carrying as many presents and supplies as I could. And yet it wasn't so long ago that I'd stock up in the same way for trips to Russia.

但当我收拾行李上周回到哈瓦那,看了一眼。我在莫斯科,从出差回家,和往常一样携带许多礼物和供应我。然而,这不是很久以前,我的股票在同样的方式去俄罗斯。

I was a student there in the early 1990s as the country emerged - very painfully - from seven decades of communism. The shops then were stomach-achingly bare.

我是一个学生在上世纪90年代初出现的国家非常痛苦——从七年的共产主义。商店进行胃心痛赤裸的。

My friends and I would head out each day with empty bags to scour the shelves of gloomy, musty stores. We got used to buying whatever there was, not what we wanted - pickled tomatoes, perhaps, or canned fish on a good day.

我和我的朋友们出去的每一天,空袋冲刷阴郁的货架,发霉的商店。我们习惯于购买任何有,不是我们想要的腌制西红柿,也许,或罐装的鱼在一个美好的一天。

Continue reading the main story

继续阅读主要的故事

Find out more

了解更多

People queue for food outside a government store in Cuba (in 2012)

人们排队在古巴政府商店外面的食物(2012)

Listen to From Our Own Correspondent for insight and analysis from BBC journalists, correspondents and writers from around the world

听自己的洞察力和分析从英国广播公司记者记者,世界各地的记者和作家

Broadcast on Radio 4 on Saturdays at 11:30 BST and BBC World Service

广播电台4周六11:30 BST和英国广播公司世界服务

Listen to the programme

听这个节目

Download the programme

下载程序

But the new Moscow I visited last week is chock-full of shopping malls, its streets lined with global brands and coffee chains. My closest friend there, Natasha, now makes most of her purchases with a few taps on her iPad.

但新的莫斯科上周访问了我充满了商场,街道两旁的全球品牌和咖啡连锁店。我最亲密的朋友,娜塔莎,现在她大部分的购买与她的ipad几个水龙头。

When I told Natasha about my mad shopping dash for Cuba, we remembered her own first trip abroad, to Britain, a year before the Soviet Union disintegrated.

当我告诉娜塔莎我的购物狂冲古巴,我们想起了她的第一次出国旅行,英国,前苏联解体的一年。

My mother had taken her out one day for the weekly food shop. "I remember there were all these different cheeses and 10 types of everything." Natasha laughed, recalling her first encounter with a Western supermarket. At first I was excited - then I started crying my eyes out.

我的母亲走了一天的每周食品店。”我记得有所有这些不同的奶酪和10种类型的一切。”娜塔莎笑了,想起她第一次遇到西方的超市。起初我很兴奋,然后我开始哭了我的眼睛。

"We've forgotten what things used to be like here," she admitted, as we stood chatting close to a branch of McDonald's and a mobile phone shop. "We definitely take all this for granted."

“我们已经忘记过去很喜欢这里,”她承认,当我们站在麦当劳的一个分支,一个手机店聊天。”我们明确地把这一切视为理所当然。”

In Natasha's childhood, it was Soviet subsidies that kept Cuba's economy afloat: this tropical island was Moscow's ideological ally, right on America's doorstep. But in the post-Soviet 1990s, after that subsidy lifeline was severed, Cubans suffered badly.

在娜塔莎的童年,这是苏联的补贴使古巴经济:这个热带岛屿是莫斯科的思想的盟友,在美国的家门口。但在苏联解体后的20世纪90年代后,补贴生命线被切断,古巴人患有严重的。

A friend in Havana told me she wound up in hospital once. There was no fuel for public transport and she was eating so little she collapsed trying to pedal her bicycle to work.

在哈瓦那的一个朋友告诉我她受伤住院一次。没有燃料的公交车和她吃太少,她倒想骑着自行车去工作。

In today's Cuba - if you have money - you won't go hungry. A series of economic reforms that began as a post-Soviet survival mechanism have slowly expanded. People are now free to run small businesses - creating a growing number of private cafes and restaurants.

在今天的古巴-如果你有钱,你就不会挨饿。一系列的经济改革,开始作为一个后苏联时代的生存机制已经慢慢的扩展。人们现在可以自由经营小企业创造越来越多的私人咖啡馆和餐厅。

And as farmers no longer have to sell everything they produce to the state, those restaurant owners can now get supplies straight from the source - bypassing a state distribution network that's notorious for its inefficiency.

当农民们不再需要卖所有他们生产的国家,这些餐馆业主现在可以直接从源到供应绕过其低效的状态分布网络,臭名昭著的。

Yet, despite Cuba's proximity to the US, Washington's 50-year-old trade embargo - which was designed to squeeze this island's communist government from power - means there's no American investment here. There's no Starbucks, no Coca-Cola plant.

然而,尽管古巴接近美国,华盛顿的50岁的贸易禁运的目的是从权力挤压这岛上的共产党政府意味着没有美国在这里的投资。没有星巴克没有可口可乐工厂

Some might see that as a good thing. But they might not find shopping for essentials quite so quaint. I once approached my big local supermarket full of optimism. I now know I'm likely to find a mixture of half-bare shelves and ones stacked with a single product: cheap ketchup, say, or adult incontinence pads.

有些人可能会认为这是一个好东西。但他们可能不到购物的要领很古怪。我曾经向我的大超市里充满了乐观。现在我知道我可能找到一个半赤裸的货架的堆叠与一个单一的产品的混合物:廉价的番茄酱,说,或成人失禁垫。

Basic items disappear whenever Cuba struggles to meet its import bills. For weeks there was no toilet paper or cartons of milk. Now even the delicious local coffee is "lost," as Cubans say - "esta perdido".

项目基本消失时,古巴努力满足进口帐单。几个星期没有卫生纸或纸板箱牛奶。现在连当地美味的咖啡“失去的古巴人ESTA珀迪多

Mind you there's plenty of "partridge in brine," should anyone fancy that. I've seen the same pile of cans on display for more than two years at $25 apiece. Perhaps a central planner ticked the wrong order box.

你有“鹧鸪在盐水中很多人认为,“应该。我看到在显示同一堆罐两年多在25美元。也许一个中央计划者在错误的顺序箱。

Cans of partridge meat

鹧鸪肉罐头

But partridge aside, overseas travel can become one frantic shopping-run. There's so much demand for everything here, that travellers known as "mules" will carry all sorts of goods into Cuba for sale - though the government has begun cracking-down on this illicit shuttle trade.

但鹧鸪一边,海外旅游可以成为一个疯狂的购物运行。有这么多这里的一切需求旅客被称为“骡子”将携带各种货物到古巴出售——尽管政府已经开始打击这种非法贸易的航天飞机

On a smaller scale, having family and friends who can shop abroad has become a vital resource for many.

在一个较小的规模,有家人和朋友可以购物在国外已成为许多重要的资源。

When I told our cameraman I was off to Russia he laughingly suggested I bring him back some spare parts for his ancient car, a Lada. Apart from the battered, beautiful American classics of 1950s, the boxy Soviet-made Lada is still the most common sight on Cuba's rutted roads.

当我告诉我们的摄影师去了俄罗斯,他笑着说我带他回他的古代一些汽车零部件,一晚。除了受虐美丽的美国经典20世纪50年代四四方方的苏联拉达仍然是最常见的对古巴坑坑洼洼的道路

 

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